Different Types of Double Glazing

The type of double glazing which is most suitable will depend on whether it is being installed for heat or noise and on the type of window being double glazed.

There are two main types: sealed units and secondary glazing.

Sealed units
A sealed unit replaces the existing pane of glass. It consists of two sheets of glass permanently sealed together around the edges with an air gap between them. The thickness of the air gap is between 6mm and 12mm, which means that sealed units are not the best choice for noise insulation. The thickness of the panes of glass varies, too usually from 3mm up to 10mm. Scaled units are available with one of the panes made from patterned or wired glass or with solar control or toughened glass. They can be bought from glass merchants or from the manufacturers.

Because they replace the existing pane, sealed units are suitable for all types of windows. They are sold in standard sizes; non-standard sizes can be made to measure - take the dimensions very accurately.

There are two main shapes of sealed unit: spaced units where the two panes of glass are the same size and stepped units where the inner pane is smaller than the outer one. A stepped unit is used where there is insufficient width in the rebate to take the thickness of a spaced unit.

The two big advantages of sealed units are that they do not suffer from condensation between the panes and that they are inconspicuous. Sealed units are used in double-glazed replacement windows.

Secondary glazing
This uses the existing window as the outer pane.

The simplest form of secondary window is plastic film, similar to the film used to wrap food, stretched across the window and stuck in position with double-sided adhesive tape. This method is not really suitable for metal-framed windows as the air gap would be too small. Plastic film can be unsightly and can be easily damaged, but it is cheap, easy to fit and good for preventing condensation. It normally has to be replaced every year.

The most common type of do-it-yourself double glazing uses plain fixed sheets of glass or plastic. The method for holding the glass or plastic pane to the window varies: some plastic sheets are fixed with magnetic strips or touch-and-close fasteners; others have a one-part or two-part plastic frame fitted around the pane which is then stuck, screwed or clipped to the window frame.

This type is not always suitable for metal windows and is difficult to use on sliding sash windows unless applied to the inside of one sash and the outside of the other (or to the window frame itself)- If fitted to the window frame, plain fixed panes prevent the window being opened. Removing the panes in summer can be very easy (magnetic strip and touch-and-close fasteners) or more tiresome (clips and screws).

With sliding panels, a track with two channels is fitted round the reveal and the glass or plastic is held in a PVC or aluminum frame. Because the track can be some way from the existing window, this type is a good choice for noise insulation and is suitable for all types of windows - there are vertical sliding versions for sliding sash windows. Sliding types are fairly expensive and can be complicated to fit but are easy to use.

The other main type is fixed or hinged panels. With these, the glass is mounted in a rigid frame of aluminum or plastic with a seal which is fitted to the outer wooden frame of the window. On non-opening windows, the panels are fixed-with clips or slotted channel. On opening casements, the panels are hinged along one side with clips on the other (small panels can be fitted for top-opening casements). If wanted for noise insulation, the panels can be mounted on a sub-frame mounted in the window reveal away from the existing window. This type of double glazing is fairly noticeable but is fairly easy to fit. It is more expensive than plain fixed sheets but cheaper than sliding panels and it is the type that most professional installers fit.

by Tauqeer Ul Hassan

Structural 3D Model Design - Know More and Gain More

Structural 3D models are considered as template models of any building structure. It gives an exact visualization of your proposed building structure. From so many techniques to put in practice for building construction, structure 3D models have emerged as the most important of all. Know more about it and gain more profit for sure.

Structure 3D models are also defined as a precise 3D representation of any building objects. It gives a perfect overview of building - enables you to get clear idea about your building. It gives a chance to view any particular building structure with 360 degree angles and to work it out as a live template of proposed building structure. When performed properly, it can definitely prove to be the main base of any construction project.

Structural 3D modeling is used to create accurate and quick structural 3D models design. It is a part of structural engineering services and can be identified as the process of developing a mathematical, wire frame representation of any 3D object using specialized computer techniques. Structural 3D modeling technique guarantees maximum accuracy and seamless integration. The process of creating error free structural models using structure 3D modeling is a collection of detailed steps, starting with a 3D sketch-up of building object.

These sketches give us exact idea about dimension specifications of various building parts. It contains valuable information about what amount of building components to use, where to put some components to get the maximum results. After collecting such data about your building, these all are implemented using 3D structural modeling software and are given digital form. These digitized sketches of buildings are called structure 3D models.

How to gain from structural 3D models? Well, it has so many advantages and applications in the construction world. Some of them are as follow:

- 3D building models
- 3D max modeling, 3D steel structural modeling and design
- Structural 3D design, building design and custom structure 3D models designing
- REVIT structural 3D –models

by Richard H Botham

Dried Lavender Around the Home

Nearly everyone is acquainted with the enticing aroma of dried-lavender. Although it is commonly used to scent perfumes and soaps, there are many other uses for this appealing dried herb. You can purchase dried lavender in bulk and experiment with it, and chances are you will find a variety of uses for it in the kitchen, bath and beyond.

Making cloth sachets filled with dried-lavender flowers is a great way to use the herb. These bags of dried lavender flowers add a subtle scent to your clothing when you put them in your dresser drawers. Dried lavender flowers' sachets are easy to make yourself out of beautiful scraps of fabric, trimmed with lace, beads or ribbons, and they make great hostess gifts. If you sew a length of ribbon to a corner of the sachet, it can be tied to clothes hangers to scent your entire closet.

People also use lavender dried flowers for cooking. A small amount can be added for additional interest to a shortbread or sugar cookie recipe. Dried lavender flowers can also be used to fill the body cavity of chicken or a pork loin wrapped around the herb to create an amazing flavor in your savory meat dishes. Your summertime glass of lemonade can be brightened with a sprinkle of dried lavender as well.

If insects invade your home in the warmer months, try a nontoxic repellent made from lavender dried flowers. The flowers can be sprinkled along doorways and windowsills, and will help to keep pesky bugs outside.

Many drivers like to keep the inside of their cars refreshed with scented products. You can easily do this with dried lavender flowers. It certainly makes the commute much more sensual, and if there are unpleasant odors that have developed in the car over time, it can help to reduce them.

The dried lavender in bulk can also be used to scent carrier oils. You might select an oil such as almond oil and sprinkle in some lavender dried flowers. Let it sit for a week in a clean jar with a lid, and then strain it. The resulting oil will carry the scent of the flowers and is great to use for massage or simply as a lovely moisturizer.

Dried-lavender in bulk can also be used for craft projects. You can make wonderful handmade gift cards that are decorated with the flowers, which can easily be glued to a variety of papers with a thin stream of hot glue from a glue gun. When you send a birthday card, you can add a few of the dried flowers inside the card in the envelope to add a delightful aroma for your recipient.

by Anne Harvester

Antique Oil Lampshades

Clip on lamp shades can be used for a number of different kinds of lamps and lights that you may have in your home. If you are looking for antique oil lampshades and need to find a variety of clip on lampshades, you can go online and find what you are looking for. The most common type of lamp-shades for table lights are clip ones and they are available in a number of styles and sizes that are made to fit different size lamps. There are many different looks that you can find and create with a clip on lamp shade. There are also different fabrics used in making the clip on lampshades and they can be paper, linen or silk.

The clip on lamp-shades for antique oil lamps are also found online and you can find a variety of different colors and styles that are available. You can search the net for and find a great variety of different lamp-shades to find the one that you are looking for. There are different ways that you can use the clip on lamp shades in your home and create a unique look for any lamp that you have.

Finding a good clip on lamp shade for your lamps is a great way to change the look of a room or decorative lamp in your home without having to spend a lot of money. You can typically find most of the clip on lampshades for a great price when you shop online at the web site. If you have been looking for the best prices and variety of lamp-shades and want to learn more about the different looks that you can have with clip on lamp shades, you can go to the web site and find the shades that are going to work for your lamp.

You will want to know what size lamp shade you need, and what kind of lamp you have that you need to find the shade for. Once you know what size to look for, you can go online to the web site and look at the different styles that are available to find the one that you like. Choosing a new lamp shade for any lamp in your home is a great way to change the look of a room and not have to pay a lot of money to decorate in your home. See all of the available styles and colors that you can choose from. You are sure to find the one that you like for any lamp.

by Gary Mark

Heart of Interior Decoration

The fundamentals of interior decoration lies in the flooring. Enriching the flooring with energetic style, alluring beauty, vivacious color, tantalizing creativity and stunning design is most needed, be it a small house or a palace. An elegant looking floor is always an object of jealousy.

While aiming at the most attractive form of flooring, we need not spare loads of bucks when you have decided to opt for either Laminate or Hardwood Flooring. These two kinds of flooring have got wads vantages. Laminate is a kind of multi layer, synthetic flooring. There are as much as four layers in laminate flooring.

The first layer is a diaphanous layer which gives auspices to the other layers.

The second layer is the typical laminate layer which is a decorative layer that coruscates with resplendence, creativity and finesse of the artist.

The third layer is the melange of melamine layer and a fiber material layer. Melamine is a nitrogenous organic base which when mixed with formaldehyde gives a resin which is a thermosetting plastic. Distinctively this melamine resin gives the fire retardant properties. The fiber in this layer gives endurance for the laminate flooring. The fourth layer is a layer of glue for fixing the laminate units. Thus laminate flooring is the fusion of many layers with lamination.

The hardwood flooring is quite tralatitious kind. They are user friendly. There are two types: Unfinished and Prefinished Hardwood flooring.

In Prefinished flooring, once the design and color are chosen, they cannot be changed over time. But they are very easy to install and they have a good durability up to 25 years.

In Unfinished flooring, the color and design can be changed once in a season depending upon the user's wish. This has a comparatively lower durability than Prefinished and Laminate flooring but holds an advantage of being modified time to time.

by Joselin Fernandus

Barnwood Furniture

Lawn furniture that accommodates just about any taste can be found through a wide variety of online stores that cater to outdoor enthusiasts. While many homeowners and apartment dwellers only get to enjoy outdoor living for a few months out of the year, there are many people who live in mild climates that take advantage of their surroundings all year round. "The Lord reigneth; let the earth rejoice; let the multitude of isles be glad thereof." (Psalm 97:1) No matter what type of items that are needed or for what kind of use, products for outside family living are almost limitless. From traditional metal benches and chairs to furnishings made from exotic woods, the possibilities for comfortable, sturdy yet stylish items can be purchased from around the world simply by clicking on an Internet store.

There are many online sources that totally specialize in products for outside living and there are many department stores that offer lawn and garden sections within their establishments. Many stores that offer lawn furniture within a section of their department store may generally provide the more traditional furnishings that most people associate with outside recreation or relaxation. Standard chairs, tables, benches, loveseats, sofas and daybeds are offered that are made from a more traditional variety of materials. Outdoor furniture that is made from cast iron, aluminum, treated wood, wicker and polyethylene resin are more common today. Most are built to withstand typical usage by families during the 3 or 4 months of late spring, summer and early fall. There are items to accommodate garden living, poolside entertainment and summer party times.

All products made for outside enjoyment are not made the same depending on the proposed usage. Poolside products such as recliners, umbrella tables, chairs, and refreshment centers are usually made to withstand exposure to higher levels of water and humidity than typical outdoor furniture. Some of the more popular options that many people purchase are those that are made from polyethylene resin or a plastic like material. It is very sturdy, can be wiped off with a damp cloth and resists mold and mildew growth which is so prevalent on poolside furnishings. These types of items can withstand being dumped into the water or standing all summer in the hot sun with intermittent spring rains. For those who also have children who bring their friends over all summer, this choice can be the most practical and economical.

Some of these types of products are low priced and can more easily be replaced when broken or faded. Other types of materials are used to produce visually pleasing as well as comfortable pool or lawn furniture. Cast metal is commonly used to produce chairs, tables and benches that can withstand the rigors of a humid, wet summer day at the pool. Metal items can also be cleaned and repainted yearly for those who required a fresh look each year at the start of spring. Treated wood has been a traditional choice for many people who prefer a more rugged, warm decor for their pool or swimming retreat. Treated wood resists mold or mildew and is usually treated for insects as well. Natural stains are applied by many manufacturers and can be painted over by owners year after year if they desire.

One of the most popular materials to take the forefront of outside living decor is the polyethylene resin material that is manufactured to resemble real wicker. It is processed into fine lawn furniture that is hard to distinguish from traditionally woven wicker pieces. However, the material will withstand mold, mildew, chipping, melting, breaking or other rough usage. The color choices are varied and can be purchased in white, antique white, green as well as other preferences. The price for the 'new wicker' runs a bit higher than typical plastic or molded outdoor furniture, but withstands heavy traffic and weather exposure. Some people love it so much that they decorate the interior of their homes with it as well even though this furniture was typically designed for outside enjoyment.

by Campbellg Steven

LED Lights Versus Incandescent Lights

LEDs are the latest craze when compared to incandescent lights. For one thing, they are much more energy efficient. LEDs have a much longer life span. As a result, incandescent bulbs are quickly becoming a thing of the past when it comes to performance and output. So let's shed some light on this issue - no pun intended.

LED lights originated in the 1960s and are basically a semiconductor light source or diode. When a diode is turned on, electrons recombine and thus release energy in the form of photons. In an incandescent bulb, on the other hand, a filament is heated to produce the light. The filament will eventually burn out and the bulb does get hot. LEDs can last as long as a standard transistor and they produce light through electrical activity instead of heat. The average lifespan of an incandescent bulb with continuous use is six hundred hours, while the lifespan of LED lights is approximately ten thousand hours.

Today, LED lights do a variety of jobs and can be found in all kinds of devices. Unlike fluorescent or incandescent bulbs, LEDs are able to place light in a single direction much better and smart designs can be achieved with their directional output. Strips of LED lights can be placed in staircases, hallways, on the outside of wall units, etc.

Special designs have been made specifically for outdoor use where waterproofing is a concern and outdoor applications include lighting for walkways, gardens, buildings, and even bridges. The diversity of applications can be seen in the automotive industry as replacements for traditional indicator lights and daytime running daylights. LEDs are even replacing the incandescent traffic lights.

LEDs are brighter, longer lasting, and much more energy efficient when compared to incandescent bulbs. It's no wonder they are the latest craze.

by Mark T Twain

Heirloom Amish Pine Furniture

In today's society, solid wood furniture is actually hard to come by. Furniture today is not made like it used to be; therefore, finding those heirloom quality pieces can prove to be difficult. However, you still do have an option, and that option is Amish pine furniture.

Amish craftsman take pride in the furniture that they build and even though you may not live anywhere near an Amish community you still have access to this high quality furniture through the Internet. Websites are available that offer some of the best quality furniture by some of the most skilled Amish craftsman from across the country, all in one place.

These craftsmen build the best Amish pine furniture that you can find anywhere. Only the best pieces are chosen to be offered through the website, giving you the guarantee that the heirloom quality that you are looking for is there. You can also take part in the development of this solid wood furniture through choosing the finish that you want, which also enables you to ensure that the piece that you have chosen will coordinate with the rest of your home and providing you with a truly unique piece of furniture.

Amish pine furniture is available in just about any piece of furniture that you desire and for any room inside or outside of your home. You can choose from pine bedroom sets, dinette sets, living room sets, odd-and-end pieces, and outdoor furniture sets. Whatever piece of furniture that you are looking for you are sure to find the one piece that catches your eye and that will become the heirloom piece that you have been looking for to hand down from generation to generation in your family. Make sure that you don't overlook the skilled Amish craftsmen and the quality furniture that they build the next time you are in the market for new furniture.

by Amanda Fern

Glass Shelving - More Popular Each and Every Day

Glass shelves were always very popular in bathrooms but have seen an increase in popularity throughout the rest of the home. Many modern designs favor the use of glass and metal. There are many cabinet styles that are popular and suited for various rooms throughout the home. Shelving is a necessity to display art, collections and to act as storage for little used items.

Some are simple and they sit on brackets screwed into the wall, some are part of a larger piece of furniture. Regardless of the type they are lovely to look out and functional.


Surprisingly enough shelves made of glass are rather durable. The glass is usually tempered to increase the durability, and to avoid cracking. Tempered glass is usually at least a quarter of an inch thick and has a green hue to it. The shelving is not as durable as wooden or metal models but does the job nicely.


Floating glass shelves is very popular. The name comes from the illusion that the shelves are not attached to anything. The system is a tongue and groove system where the shelves are attached directly into the wall. This shelving is more than a system of shelves it is more of an architectural element. The shelves look as if they are built in design elements of the wall.

The system can be designed in many different ways, and can be used to house an entertainment system, books, display collections, plates and a host of other items that would normally sit on a shelf.

The floating glass shelves opens up a whole new possibility for shelving units. There are no height restrictions, because each shelf is individually installed, and the designs are unlimited and can be present in many different arrangements. Installing floating glass shelves is simplistic and only requires a few hand tools. There are professional installation options available.

Another favorite application of glass shelves is in a dining room hutch. Glass shelves are often used in conjunction with wood shelves, the glass is used to reflect light and open up the visual space of the cabinetry.


Glass shelving is usually no more or less expensive than wood or metal shelving options. Cost is relative to design and function. The more unique and elaborate the shelving is the more expensive it will be.

by Dickson Young

Upgrading to HDTV - What You Should Know

When you make the decision to upgrade to a high definition television, HDTV, that's just the beginning, there are quite a few things to start with, what parts and pieces you need and how much it will cost. HDTVs come in several options, plasma, LCD and rear projection, so you'll need to purchase one of these to receive HD pictures. These all have their upsides and downsides so it's good to research that to be sure you get the one that is appropriate to your lifestyle.

There are a few costs associated with upgrading to an HDTV. Depending on where you decide to place your television, you may incur costs with installation. Your two options are placing it on a television stand or mounting it on a wall. Placing it on a television stand is the most economical unless you buy a brand new entertainment center just for this purpose. Oftentimes they are mounted on a wall. If this is the case, unless one is confident of self-installation, this can cost around $100 or more to have a professional come in and do the installation.

Consider next who will be providing your HD signal, have a conversation with your satellite or cable provider, they may have some specials or a free HD upgrade. They often have services to help you like installation of your HDTV for cheap or free. If there is no special check around with other providers in your area to see what might be available.

Beyond the costs for installation and the digital cable/satellite upgrade costs there will be more expense due to the cable costs if the HDTV doesn't come with proper cables. A cable that won't come with the TV is an HDMI cable (high definition multimedia interface), and this is the cable you will want to use to connect your signal source to the television. Shop around for these cables as the prices vary greatly.

How compatible is your DVD player to your new HDTV? You may have to upgrade your DVD source to Blu-Ray Disc which can be expensive. Upgrading to a high definition television definitely has advantages and disadvantages. It offers more in the entertainment of movie viewing and video gaming, yet more expensive.

by JasonG Thomas